CIM Definition Standards - Canadian Institute of Mining's Most Common Terms Explained
This page displays a selection of the most common definitions of the Canadian Institute of Mining,
Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM), i.e. the CIM definition standards.
Mineral resource and mineral reserve estimates and resulting technical reports must be prepared by or under the
direction of a Qualified Person.
What Is a Qualified Person
An individual who is an engineer or geoscientist with at least five years experience in mineral exploration,
mine development or operation, or mineral project assessment. This individual is a member or licensee in good
standing of a professional association and has to have relevant experience of the subject matter of the mineral
project and the technical report.
In order to convert a mineral resource into a mineral reserve, a preliminary feasibility study has to be
What Is a Preliminary Feasibility Study
A comprehensive study of the viability of a mineral project that has advanced to a stage where the mining method
has been established (underground or open pit) and an effective method of mineral processing has been determined,
and includes a financial analysis based on reasonable assumptions of technical, engineering, legal, operating,
economic, social, and environmental factors and the evaluation of other relevant factors which are sufficient for a
Qualified Person to determine if all or part of the Mineral Resource may be classified as a Mineral Reserve.
The relationship between the mineral resource and mineral reserve categories are displayed in the following
Mineral Resources vs. Mineral Reserves
What Is a Mineral Resource
A concentration of minerals in or on the Earth’s crust that has reasonable prospects for economic extraction.
The location, quantity, grade, geological characteristics and continuity of a mineral resource are known, estimated
or interpreted from specific geological evidence and knowledge.
A mineral resource can be subdivided into inferred, indicated and measured categories. An inferred
mineral resource has a lower level of confidence than that applied to an indicated mineral resource but an
indicated mineral resource has a lower level of confidence than a measured mineral resource.
Inferred Mineral Resource
A reasonable assumption of quantity and grade on the basis of geological evidence and limited sampling.
Inferred mineral resources must be excluded from estimates forming the basis of feasibility or other
Indicated Mineral Resource
An estimate of quantity and grade which is based on detailed and reliable exploration and testing information
gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, workings and drill holes
that are spaced closely enough for geological and grade continuity to be reasonably assumed.
An indicated mineral resource estimate is of sufficient quality to support a preliminary feasibility
study which can serve as the basis for major development decisions.
Measured Mineral Resource
Mineralization may be classified as a measured mineral resource by the qualified person when the nature,
quality, quantity and distribution of data are such that the quantity and grade of the mineralization can be
estimated to within close limits and that variation from the estimate would not significantly affect potential
Mineral reserves are those parts of mineral resources which result in an estimated quantity and grade which is
the basis of an economically viable project after taking all relevant factors into account. Thus, the main
difference between a mineral resource and a mineral reserve is that a mineral resource is based on geological
interpretation and a mineral reserve is analysed further taking the mining operation into account.
The economically mineable part of a measured or indicated mineral resource demonstrated by at least a
preliminary feasibility study. This study must include adequate information on mining, processing, metallurgical,
economic and other relevant factors that demonstrate, at the time of reporting, that economic extraction can be
Mineral reserves can be subdivided into probable mineral reserves and proven mineral reserves.
Probable Mineral Reserve
The economically mineable part of an indicated mineral resource demonstrated by at least a preliminary
feasibility study. A probable mineral reserve has a lower level of confidence than a proven mineral reserve.
Proven Mineral Reserve
The economically mineable part of a measured mineral resource demonstrated by at least a preliminary feasibility
Application of the proven mineral reserve category implies that the qualified person has the highest degree of
confidence in the estimate with the consequent expectation in the minds of the readers of the report.
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